Monthly Archives: October 2017

How to Drop a No Contact Order in Minnesota

Can you drop a no contact order in Minnesota?  If you asked for it in family court in the first place, it’s civil and you can drop it.  But if it’s in a criminal case, you’ll need to work at it.  Here’s how.

No Contact Orders in Criminal Cases

A crime with a “domestic relationship” element is a domestic crime.

In domestic crime cases, courts issue a No Contact Order.  It prohibits the accused from having contact with the person claimed to be “the victim.”

They’re not consulting the person they’re calling their victim.  In fact, the witness they’re casting in the victim role has no real voice in this – at least not today.  He cannot “press charges.”  And. she can’t directly “drop the charges.”

The current system takes the control away from her.  And it gives her control to the prosecutor.  It’s been that way for decades.

Your Role in the Drama Makes a Difference

If you are the accused, forget it.  The judge is not going to drop the no contact order for you.  No, this article is for the witness – the one forced into the role of victim of the prosecution.

Billie Holiday: "Ain't nobody's business if I do."

Billie Holiday: “Ain’t nobody’s business if I do.”

If you are the witness in a domestic assault case chances are you want to drop a no contact order.

But how?  The information here should help you start regaining control over your life – taking it back from the government.

Does this scenario sound familiar?  You and your other were enjoying some free time together, with adult beverages.  After a few drinks, some conflict and less restraint in expressing it.

Somehow, a call went to the police.  The 911 call – by whomever – was recorded.  Tempers flared.  Police officers showed up.  They picked someone to arrest, sometimes with help.  In what now seems like no time, it’s over.  They’re gone.

And so is your other, who is now in jail.  Work was missed.  Bail money.  A lawyer.  And – a No Contact Order.

How Long Does a Criminal No Contact Oder Last? 

The pretrial No Contact Order could be in place for months.  After sentencing, a judge may replace it with a probation No Contact Order, for years.

To know how to drop a no contact order, you need to understand what it is.  So let’s drill down into it.

Conditions of Pretrial Release

In a criminal case, any kind of criminal case, the court can and often does set conditions of pretrial release.  Or it can release the accused on their personal recognizance (meaning no conditions, just show up for court appearances.)

One condition of pretrial release the court can require is bail.  And bail can be in the form of cash or a bond.  In Minnesota, we have the right to pretrial release on money only bail, or unconditional bail.

Unconditional Bail

In other words, we are presumed innocent before a trial.  And we have the right to pretrial release without any conditions other than money-bail.

For non-felony cases there is a maximum bail.  (For felony cases, there is no maximum.)  The maximum bail for a non-felony case is four times the maximum fine.  For a misdemeanor $1,000 is the maximum fine, so the maximum bail is $4,000.  For a gross misdemeanor the maximum fine is $3,000 so maximum bail is $12,000.

Since we have the right to money-only bail, in a non-felony case the maximum bail must be without other conditions.

And, perhaps it’s no coincidence.  But when judges set unconditional bail in non-felony cases, it’s equal to the maximum.  That’s $4,000 in a misdemeanor cases and $12,000 in a gross misdemeanor case.  That could matter, since most domestic assault cases are non-felony.

Therefore, if the defendant posts the unconditional bail, a no contact” cannot be a condition of pretrial release

“Well, we can’t have that.”

Some people were not happy with that.  So, several years ago Minnesota adopted a statute authorizing courts to issue a Domestic Abuse No Contact Order.  That name is so long that we often use the acronym, D.A.N.C.O.

The earlier Minnesota Domestic Abuse Act’s Order for Protection law was the model.  The OFP is from a civil case heard in family court but with criminal penalties for violations.

They got you covered, either way

Bottom line, a defendant can now post unconditional bail, with no pretrial release conditions, but still be subject to a DANCO.  Minnesota Statutes §629.75, Subdivision 1 (b), says in part:

“A domestic abuse no contact order is independent of any condition of pretrial release or probation imposed on the defendant. A domestic abuse no contact order may be issued in addition to a similar restriction imposed as a condition of pretrial release or probation.”

Perhaps a court will strike down the law as unconstitutional one day.  But that is beyond the scope of this article.  And this is about what courts are doing now in Minnesota.

Two layers of no contact orders

It’s important to understand that in a criminal case there could be two no contact orders: one as a condition of pretrial release, the other as a DANCO.  The distinction is clear when we look at the remedy for a violation of each.

If a condition of pretrial release is violated, the court’s remedy is to issue an arrest warrant, jail, and revisit the issue of pretrial release in a new bail hearing. 

But a prosecutor can charge a DANCO violation as a new, additional crime.  The DANCO violation crime will have a different date of alleged offense (compared to the original criminal charge).  There could be an arrest, jail, a bail hearing, on that new charge of violation of a DANCO.   (The same act could be both a violation of a condition of pretrial release; and a criminal violation of a DANCO.)

As a result, when it comes to the No Contact condition, the defendant gets no benefit from the higher, unconditional bail.

Do courts ever drop a No Contact Order?

Yes, sometimes, but they make it difficult.

The reality is that the witness has no real voice unless they work hard and persevere.  To drop a no contact order, it helps if she knows how to go about it.  It also helps to have a witness lawyer helping make sure that he or she will be heard.

Domestic violence cases, perhaps like many things, vary along a continuum.  A few are horrific; but the vast majority are not.  Just ask any police officer what the most common 911 response call is – “a domestic.”

In how many of these cases is alcohol a factor?  Almost all.  The majority do not involve any physical harm or injury or minimal like a slap, bruise or scratch.

The harm caused by the criminal prosecution in response is typically massive and disproportionate.  But you already knew that, didn’t you?

Are You Afraid of Him?

The number one question when you go to court will be: “are you afraid of her?”  Hearsay written in the police reports will be reviewed, over and over.  People are not always the best historians when they are angry and drinking.  (But discussing the events of the night in question is often not a good idea.  So discuss with your lawyer before doing so.)

when you go to court?” 

Yes, you as the witness, were never asked.  And now they’ve placed the burden  squarely on your shoulders to go to court.  You will plead with the prosecutor, then the judge to drop a no contact order.  It’s your only chance.  (The prosecutor or their “advocate” may discourage you from coming to court to ask the No Contact Order be dropped.  If you don’t come, it won’t get dropped.)

Prosecutors have “victim advocates.”  Leaving aside the manipulative “victim” labeling, are they really advocates?  A rare few are.

But most see themselves as the prosecution advocate, whose job it is to control and manipulate “their” victim to serve the state.  The few good ones actually listen. The best will even fight for the witness’s position and truly advocate for it.  Which type will you get?  Luck of the draw.

Your Rights under Minnesota’s Victim’s Right Act

Minnesota has a Victim’s Rights Act, Minnesota Chapter 611A.  One might think that prosecutors claiming to represent “victims” interests would use and cite this law often.  I’ve almost never heard it happen.  But I have cited it in most of my domestic assault defense cases, and every time I’ve represented a witness.  Why?

Because the law says that prosecutors and courts are must listen to the “victim” and allow them a voice.  But many don’t seem to want to hear it.  Many prosecutors just want to use the witness for their purposes.  Prosecutors often  disregard the effect on witness’s real lives.  The prosecutor discards the witness after use, without thought or care.

A Lawyer Can Help You Drop a No Contact Order

It helps for the witness to have a lawyer experienced in domestic violence cases.  Your lawyer should know the courtroom, the players, and how to make sure your voice is heard.  We will not be ignored.  And we will make your voice heard.

More can be written.  More could be said.  Hopefully this brief discussion has been useful for you.

It’s stressful to call police for help, only to have them take over your life.  They and their lawyers turn into an enemy that threatens to ruin you and your family.  But there are countermeasures.  You can assert your power.  Don’t let them have it.  You can fight back, and regain control over your life.

Drop a no contact order in Minnesota

Drop a no contact order in Minnesota

If you have questions, consider calling a Minnesota criminal defense lawyer experienced in domestic crime defense.

Thomas C. Gallagher is a Minnesota domestic violence defense lawyer with decades of experience with domestic assault and other domestic crime cases and Minnesota restraining orders.  He regularly represents the accused to successful outcomes; and sometimes is retained as a witness lawyer.

How to Avoid a Marijuana Arrest in a Car in Minnesota: Top Nine Tips

The other day I was talking to a prosecutor.  I told him that we needed to keep client’s public record clean.  We don’t want words like “marijuana,” “drug paraphernalia,” and “criminal conviction” there.  And he mischievously said, “You know how he could avoid all that, don’t you?  Don’t get caught. He was joking, but like many jokes there was some truth in it.  So, how can you avoid a marijuana arrest in a car?

Safety in the final days of Prohibition

Avoid a marijuana arrest: do not consent to any search

Avoid a marijuana arrest: do not consent to any search

As of this writing, ten states have legal marijuana for responsible use by adults 21 years and older.  And, most of the U.S. population now lives in a state with legal medical marijuana, including Minnesota.  And hemp is now legal in Minnesota.  Today in Minnesota, not all marijuana is illegal to possess.

We should all know by now that marijuana is safer than alcohol.  After all, there is no lethal overdose possible with marijuana, unlike alcohol, aspirin, and many prescription drugs.

But in Minnesota in 2019 despite a majority in the polls favoring legalization, criminal Prohibition lingers on, destroying innocent lives.  We should re-legalize in Minnesota.  And here is What Marijuana Legalization Should Look like in Minnesota.

In the meantime, know your rights.  And watch your six!

What can you do to reduce the chance of getting caught? Here are nine tips for avoiding a marijuana arrest in a car:

1. Situational awareness

Guess where the vast majority of police contacts with people happen?  Correct – in or near a motor vehicle.  As a result, the best way to avoid a marijuana criminal charge is to avoid having marijuana in your vehicle.

Complacency can set in.  If it hasn’t happened yet, it never will.  Right?

Be smart.  Play the long game.  If a scenario is unlikely, with repetition (miles traveled in the car), it will inevitably happen.

There will be a traffic stop.  And when it does happen; marijuana should not be in the car.

Minnesota:  If the prudent marijuana smoker does carry marijuana in the car only when absolutely necessary, she:

  • keeps it under the “small amount” 42.5 grams, plant-form only (not concentrates), but
  • always in the trunk of the car (to avoid a “marijuana in a motor vehicle” charge).

Beware: a “small amount” of marijuana concentrates such as THC oil, dabs, marijuana wax, is always a crime under a loophole in Minnesota’s decrim law.  And over 1/4 gram of the resinous form of marijuana is a felony in Minnesota under that technicality.

The number one way to avoid a marijuana arrest in a car is: don’t have it the car.

2.  Odor

The most common excuse police officers use as probable cause to search after a traffic stop is “odor of marijuana.” The odor can be either fresh or burned.  But this is prone to abuse by police officers since it’s impossible to verify.

Even so, avoid having the odor of marijuana either on your person or in your car.

And, if the odor of marijuana is there, be sure not to have any actual marijuana in your car.

Have you or anyone you know experienced “nose blindness?”  A cigarette smoker may not be able to smell the odor of past cigarette use on another.  And a person who has been drinking alcohol– can’t smell the odor of alcohol on another person.  But non-users can smell it, right off.

Assume that if you’ve been smoking it that day, there is odor.  If it’s been smoked in the car, the odor is probably lingering in the car for a day or more.  (Tip: don’t ever smoke in the car.)

The second way to avoid a marijuana arrest in a car is: don’t smoke in the car. Don’t have fresh in the car.  And avoid any odor in the car.

3.  Consent? 

“No, officer, I do not consent to a search.”

Remember Paul Simon’s song “50 ways to leave your lover?”  Similarly, there are at least fifty ways to tell a police officer that you do not consent to any searches.

“I’m late, for a very important date.”

“Officer, am I being detained? I’m late, for a very important date.”

Make an excuse if you like: “I’m late, for a very important date.”  But no excuse is necessary.  You should not offer any justification for refusing a search.

Be confident and politely insist. After all, it’s your legal right to be secure from searches and seizures, unless they have a search warrant or an exception to the warrant requirement.  That’s the Fourth Amendment.

The rape metaphor:  One of those exceptions is a consent search.  Police often ask people “do you mind if I search”?  The correct answer is, “I do not want to be searched.”  And if police coerce you into “consent to a search,” is that really consent?

Change it to sex.  If someone coerces you into sex, did you consent?  Your lawyer may need to make that argument.  Far better if you resist all coercion, and do not consent.

If you do consent to a search, you’ve waived your right to object to it later.  Also, if police know they have no legal basis to search without “consent,” then they may leave without searching.

The third way to avoid a marijuana arrest in a car is: do not consent to any search.

4.  You can do both

Don’t lie and don’t admit. How?

Remain silent.  Or if words do come out of your mouth make sure that they are:

  • not lies, and
  • do not relate to illegality.

More than half the people stopped by police in traffic, when questioned about “marijuana in the car?” after the police officer claims “odor” will either lie or admit having marijuana in the car, often then telling the police where it is.  Wrong answer!

Instead, remain silent – meaning you do not produce words.  Tightening your lips may help your resolve.  If you do say something, change the subject.  And avoid talking about whether there is marijuana in the car or not.  And again, do not consent to a search.

Police will try to make you think: “Busted.  The jig is up. May as well come clean now.  Give up.  You cannot win at this point.”

But don’t believe that for a minute!  Be ready for that trick.  Knowing the law can help keep your confidence level up, and help you avoid or minimize legal trouble.

The fourth way to avoid a marijuana arrest in a car is: avoid talking to police.

5.  Unlawfully prolonged detention

“Am I free to leave?”  Police stop you for a headlight out.  Normally it takes ten minutes to complete the stop.  Then they hand you the ticket, and walk away.  The government intrusion upon your liberty is over.  And you are “free to leave.”

Now, let’s change the scenario.  Police stop you for something normally resulting in a traffic ticket in ten minutes.  But this time the officer prolongs the detention.  Is that legal?

The courts apply a “totality of the circumstances” balancing test.  Courts balance the intrusion upon your Liberty, against the reasonable suspicion of criminal activity.

Avoid a marijuana arrest: "Officer, am I free to go?"

Avoid a marijuana arrest: “Officer, am I free to go?”

But one factor is: “did the person acquiesce to the detention?  Did the person communicate a desire to leave?

Police may say in court that “at that point, the person was free to leave; the prolonged time was consensual.”  If believed, then the prolonged detention needs less justification; fewer facts supporting a reasonable suspicion of criminal activity.

Since “Fleeing a police officer” is a crime, whether police are detaining should be a simple black and white question.  Either you are “free to leave,” or not.

It’s best to make a record.  Ask: Officer am I free to go? And do it more than once.  Say it loud and clear, for the camera.  If you’re asking, you’re winning.

This will help your lawyer challenge the legality of the prolonged detention, search and arrest later.

Or, just start slowly walking away, to force the police officer to tell you to stop.  (Yes, you can walk away from a car stop even if you’re the driver.)

The fifth way to avoid a marijuana arrest in a car is: if you’ve been detained for a while, ask “officer, am I free to go?” Repeat as necessary.

6.  “You have the right to remain silent.”

Button your lip: Remain silent

Button your lip: Remain silent

When you hear that, that is your cue to – what?  It’s your cue to stop forming words and allowing them to escape your mouth!

It’s best to say nothing.  But if you want to say anything:  “Officer, I am not a lawyer or a police officer. I need to assert my legal right to remain silent, and to consult legal counsel before talking.”  Repeat as necessary.

No matter what they do or say, they cannot require you to speak.  So don’t.

But follow physical police commands to:

  • show your hands,
  • lie down,
  • hands behind your back,
  • stand over there. 

Again, however, do not speak.

The sixth way to avoid a marijuana arrest in a car: do not talk about marijuana, smoking, if you have any, where it is, anything at all.

7.  Field Exercises

Sometimes police want to build a case for marijuana impaired driving.  They ask you to perform “Field Sobriety Tests.”

But these are not scientifically valid.  And their purpose is to incriminate.  Even completely sober people have a difficult time “passing” them.  If you do them, you will fail.  If you don’t, you won’t.

What to do?  Don’t! 

Police cannot legally require you to do these field exercises.  They include the “Nine-step walk and turn,” “One leg stand,” “Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus” eye test.  So, you can and should refuse to do any of these.

When you do, the police officer may invite an excuse.  But don’t take that bait!

Any excuse could be incriminating.  Instead say: Officer, I am aware of my legal rights.  And I respectfully choose not to do any field exercises or tests.”  Police will ask you again and again.  So just keep repeating that you choose not to do them – no excuses.  (Who cares if you have one leg! That’s beside the point.)  It’s your legal right.

Important:  (If the police officer has a factual basis to suspect impaired driving, she can request that you blow into a Preliminary Breath Test (PBT) machine.  And if you refuse, she can arrest you for that refusal.)

The seventh tip for avoiding a marijuana arrest in a car is: politely decline any request to perform Field Sobriety Tests.

8.  Smile, you’re being recorded

From the traffic stop, to sitting in a squad car, to the police station, assume that you are being recorded.

This recording may later hurt you, or help you.  And even when alone or with another person in the back of a police car, this is recorded.  The recording is on, even when no police officer is in the car.  Heads up!

Phone calls from jail are recorded for later use as evidence.  Be aware of this.  Avoid talking about the case in any of these contexts.

The eight tip for avoiding a marijuana arrest in a car is: be camera aware.

9.  Keep your cool

If arrested, hitting the panic button will only make it worse.  Police may try to exploit your trauma and emotional upset.  So remain calm, cool, collected.

You can win the long game, by playing defense in the short game.  You or someone on the outside can help you contact a Minnesota criminal defense lawyer and if need be, a bail bond agent.  And most people will be able to get out within a few days or less.

The ninth and final tip for avoiding a marijuana arrest in a car is: don’t let them push your buttons.  Keep your cool.  Quiet confidence wins.

Liberty-Lawyer.com logo sm wideThomas C. Gallagher is a Minneapolis marijuana lawyer frequently representing people charged with possession of marijuana and related “crimes” in Minnesota.  In his spare time, he works on legalizing marijuana as a Board Member of Minnesota NORML.

Have a comment?  You are welcome to leave comments and responses below.