Monthly Archives: September 2016

Self-defense: Dominance, Escalation and Deception

Whether you think little or a lot about self-defense, you can live a better life when you consider self-defense from two perspectives: the practical and the legal.  The different schools of self-defense training agree on many things.  Similarly, the law of self-defense agrees in many ways across jurisdictions, cultures, even history.   And though practical self-defense training (how to do it) and the law of self-defense seem to be quite different perspectives, they share much in common.

Whether a legal defense of self-defense is accepted will depend partly upon what people believe the defendant’s situation was at the time – a totality of the circumstances.  Inevitably jurors, judges, all of us will compare what we believe the person being judged did, with what we imagine we would have done in those hypothetical circumstances.

“Better judged by twelve than carried by six.”

A wise aphorism in the lore of self-defense is “better judged by twelve than carried by six.”  The person required to use force in self-defense faces a two-fold threat: first surviving the physical attack; and second surviving the potential legal threat of being wrongly accused of a crime.

Dominance, Escalation and Deception

Some physical attacks are part of a robbery, a rape, a riot, or planned.  Putting those to one side for now, let’s look at the other sort – attacks that spontaneously rise from anger, conflict or a sense of having been treated disrespectfully by someone.  What are some strategies and tactics that can be used to both good practical and legal effect?

The Social Reality

Humans are social animals.  We have always lived in groups, each with our roles within the group.  Like other social animals, we have orders of social dominance, and individual competitions for dominance ranking.  These can be in part based on coercion (such as laws and law enforcement) as well as the actual use of force – lawful and unlawful.  Generally we are unaware of our social dominance orders and roles.

But when it comes to self-defense, awareness can be a powerful tool to help us avoid trouble – to avoid both physical attacks as well as legal attacks.

A person may present to you their subjective belief that you have treated them unjustly or wronged them in some way.  How can you use dominance, escalation and deception to avoid trouble?

call-of-the-wild-image-excerptWhen animals compete for social dominance, they often will display an escalation of threatening physical posturing, sometimes followed by an attack and fight.  They know what they are competing for – social dominance, a recognition by the other of their superior position.

If at some point one of the competitors backs down and shows surrender, this submission will cause the winner to cease the attack.  The dominant animal will not normally hurt the submitting one.  One great story about this in literature is Jack London’s The Call of the Wild.

Your humility may not be as deep and sincere as you might like – but you can use some tactical deception and adopt an attitude of humility.  If backing down helps avoid a conflict, you win.  You can’t stop someone from baiting you.  But you can refuse to take the bait.

Though humans can’t necessarily be trusted to stop attacking a person who is clearly not competing for dominance, it is a strategy that may work in some situations.  If the conflict is about the person’s perception of honor, justice, having been wronged – it doesn’t matter if they are justified – this may be a situation where conceding dominance, and de-escalation of conflict tactics may resolve the situation enough so that you can leave the situation, and move on.

Asserting dominance, escalation of conflict, can be just the thing

When a person or group threatens attack or attacks as part of a plan, like robbery or rape; conceding dominance and de-escalation of conflict tactics are unlikely to work.  In these situations, the aggressor is a predator with a goal, acting with rational purpose not just emotion.

Here, asserting dominance authoritatively, escalation of threat displays and the use of force may be best.  Why?  Predatory behavior seeks an easy target.  To ward off predators, be a hard target.  Show strength, confidence, and dominance.  Lead the escalation of conflict.  To the extent that the predator is primarily opportunistic, they may be deterred. Where not discouraged, the predator may be effectively disabled by force.

Evade, Escape, Engage.

Where practical, it’s best to avoid a potential physical concentration.  No one wins a fight, when everyone gets hurt.  This could mean crossing the street, walking the other way, driving away – any way out of there, away from the threat.

Sometimes it’s not a reasonable option to retreat – for example if the threat is already close and would simply attack you from behind if you turned and ran.  But in unarmed combat especially, creating some distance can increase safety.  Even when the attacker is armed, creating distance can sometimes reduce risk of harm.

In many traditional martial arts disciplines, for example Wing Tzun, a general rule is that we do not initiate an attack.  This idea, dating back hundreds – perhaps thousands of years, is not based on any legal considerations.  It’s a fighting tactic to either avoid a fight by not initiating; or forcing the opponent to physically commit to an action that can then be exploited with various combative counter-techniques.  This practice of not initiating a fight will also be helpful in the event of legal trouble, and the assertion of a legal defense of self-defense.

Before and once an attack is underway, we assess the threat and seek to bring a proportionate, reasonable response.  We don’t want to respond disproportinately, but the perfect is the enemy of the good.

See our related article: Disparity of Force and Self-Defense.

Too little force to mount an effective defense could result in serious injury or death for ourselves or loved ones.  Too much could lead to legal trouble.  Those who judge us from outside the situation have the stress-free benefit of hindsight.  The arm-chair quarterbacks often think they could’ve done better, even though they weren’t there.

Stop the Threat

Once force is used, when should it stop?  Self-defense systems generally teach that you should use necessary force until the threat is no longer a threat.  Contrary to the impression created in many films and television shows, the lawful self-defender does not seek to hurt or to kill, but rather to disable the attacker or attackers – to stop the threat.

If an attacker is hurt or killed that is an unintended consequence of the focused goal of self-defense – to simply stop the threat.  Once the attacker is disabled from continuing the attack, the use of force against them should also stop.

After the use of force in defense of self or another

Once you have confirmed that the threat has been stopped or disabled, if it is safe to do so (being aware of third parties and weapons), it’s a good idea to render First Aid or whatever assistance can be rendered to the now disabled attacker, and contact the police if possible.

We’ll look at how to handle police contacts in the future (what to do, what to say and when).  But what you do, and knowing what to do, before police contact stemming from the use of force in self-defense is far more important.  Prepare yourself by learning and training in self-defense – not only for your sake but for the sake of your family, co-workers, and those around you.

Thomas Gallagher is a Minneapolis Criminal Lawyer whose practice includes asserting the defense of self-defense and defense of others on behalf of clients.

Comments are welcome below.

Self-defense and The Other

Self-defense is a legal defense to certain criminal charges in Minnesota.  A defendant can plead self-defense when facing charges of: assault, murder, and disorderly conduct, among others.

It is not a bright-line sort of law.  If there were, the law would be easier to apply but justice and fairness would be sacrificed.  Instead, the law asks the finder-of-fact (the jury in the case of a jury trial) to look at the totality of circumstances to determine whether the accused person acted in self-defense.

A totality-of-the-circumstances test is more difficult to apply than a bright-line test, but can be more fair, more just.  But when a person judges another and their past choices under that test; that person must use their discretion.  And in doing they so will apply their own life experiences, biases, and point of view.

Who is The Other?

gran-torino-posterIn the popular Clint Eastwood film Gran Torino, character Walt Kowalski leads a lonely existence.   But he takes great pride in his lawn.  Gangbangers arrive to kidnap the young man next door, character Thao Vang Lor.  During a scuffle on his lawn, Walt appears with a rifle to defend the kid and his Hmong family.  He warns the gang members: “Get off my lawn!”

His use of racial slurs reveals his view of the kid he is defending and his family as The Other.

But by the end of the film, protagonist Walt Kowalski fully connects with young Thao.   Thao is then like a son to him.  And he feels part of Thao’s family and Hmong culture.  Thao is no longer The Other, nor is his family or the Hmong culture.  Walt identifies with them completely.  This is one of the story arcs of the film, the movement from The Other to One of Us.

What difference does it make?

Will we view another as The Other, or as One of Us?  When it comes to self-defense, that makes a big difference.

If another person is One of Us, then we are naturally empathetic.  We see each situation through their eyes, from their point-of-view.  But, if someone is The Other, they are not like us.  And we are naturally suspicious of their motives and behavior.

This may be part of our genetic nature as humans.  Throughout human existence, until relatively recently, humans lived in small groups of ten to fifty people.  Each group member needed to cooperate with other group members to survive.  But we viewed a person from outside the group suspiciously, as a threat; at least until some reason came to light to assure otherwise.

You start out as The Other

Imagine this scenario:  You have just left a bar downtown at closing time.  A few dozen people are standing around in the warm summer night.  They’re chatting in small groups, before leaving for their next stop.

Facing east, you notice three young men walking down the street towards the crowd that fills most of the sidewalk.  You’ve had self-defense training.  You’re situationally aware.

You see one pull back his arm, and make a fist.  He strikes a heavy blow into the side of a man’s head ten feet from you.  The man doesn’t see it coming.  And he drops to the ground.  Your jaw slackens in shock.  The man who was hit is on the ground, shaking it off, trying to comprehend what just happened.  The lone attacker squares off and goes after the man again, as he regains his feet.

The victim of the attack tries to defend himself, blocking and striking back with fists.   Then, you see other people in the crowd turning to look to see what the fuss is about.  They back away, to form a circle around the pair.  You overhear several people in different groups say: “why are those two guys fighting?” and “What the hell is wrong with them!”

Now, instead of being the bystander, imagine you are the target of the attack.  But 95% of the witnesses in the crowd did not see how it began or why.  They turned and noticed after that, to see “two guys fighting” – The Other.

Point-of-View matters

Minnesota’s general self-defense statute is Section 609.06.  It includes the language:

“reasonable force may be used upon or toward the person of another without the other’s consent when the following circumstances exist or the actor reasonably believes them to exist: (3) when used by any person in resisting or aiding another to resist an offense against the person… .”

Notice these two phrases in the self-defense statute:

  • “reasonable force” and
  • “circumstances exist or the actor reasonably believes them to exist.
Self-defense law: Point-of-view makes all the difference

Self-defense law: Point-of-view makes all the difference

Whenever we see the word “reasonable” in the law, we have a totality-of-circumstances test, not a bright-line test.

All real crimes require proof of the element of criminal intent of the actor (the accused person).

This requires the jury to evaluate the evidence from the point-of-view of the accused.  So, the jury should not consider the point-of-view of anyone else, even a victim.

The statute emphasizes this point.   It says that the fact-finder must consider the circumstances that the defendant reasonably believed to exist at the time. 

The law is curative – meaning that the law tries to fix a recognized bias endemic to our culture.  If that bias did not exist, we would not need legal language attempting to remedy it.

From this we can see some of the basic types of factors in the totality-of-circumstances for self-defense.  Was the force used:

  1. reasonable under either the circumstances that actually existed, or,
  2. under the circumstances that the actor (defendant) reasonably believed existed?
  3. proportionate to the circumstances, whether actual or reasonably believed to exist?

Cultural bias in the post hoc observer

When people in our culture see two people fighting they’ll generally view them both as The Other, with suspicion.  Similarly, people hearing about people fighting they will tend to presume that both must be guilty of something.  This – despite their personal experience that most “fights” involve an aggressor attacking an unwilling, eventual participant, forced to defend herself.

See our related articles:

Disparity of Force and Self-Defense

Self-defense: Dominance, Escalation and Deception

The Duty to Retreat – shifting the burden of proof

This cultural bias takes form in the current Duty to Retreat in Minnesota.  In certain cases, the prosecuting attorney can try to reverse the burden of proof.   The prosecutor forces the defendant to show some evidence that she met “the duty to retreat.”

The Duty to Retreat jury instruction gives the prosecutor a second bite at the apple.

After all, what juror would find the use of force reasonable, if the defendant could have retreated before the altercation?

The Minnesota duty to retreat manifests the cultural bias of viewing the abstract self-defender as “The Other,” with initial suspicion.

Implications for the future, and for the past

Self-defense training EBMAS

Self-defense training

We should think about how we will defend against a future attack, should it occur.  Ideally that will include self-defense training, whether it is one class or life-long learning and training practice.

Consider: “How can I help others perceive me as a good guy (one of us) rather than The Other?”

Our appearance can play a part in this, as can our words and conduct.

The Other as a core issue in a self-defense case

Are you a lawyer or a defendant in a criminal case where the defendant acted in self-defense?  If so, you recognize that one of the core issues will be “good guy vs. The Other.

Here, the self-defender’s appearance, words and conduct will matter.   But the point-of view adopted by the fact-finder (jury) will also be key.

The law asks the fact-finder to look at what was happening at the time, from the point-of-view of the defendant.  Hindsight is a trap.

Moving from The Other to one of us

So, the defense lawyer, judge and other jurors need to help the jurors overcome our initial bias against The Other.  The defense lawyer helps jurors get to know that the accused is a good guy, and acted reasonably. logo sm wideThomas Gallagher is a Minneapolis criminal lawyer.  His practice includes cases where the accused person acted in self-defense.