Monthly Archives: May 2010

Prostitution and Minnesota Law

How can we best understand prostitution law?

Prostitution law involves two important aspects of human existence: sexuality and money.  What is prostitution?  Sex for money.

Given the controversy these inspire, is it surprising that prostitution law has been controversial?  After all, prostitution has been around longer than money.

Throughout the history of the world, and its many peoples, there have been many different views.

Harm reduction or send a message?

Do we believe that social harms are caused by our sexuality, our money, our prostitution?  Put that way – yes, we do.  We have a social consensus: these do cause to social harms.

Then, what best to do about it?

Can the laws play a role in reducing these harms?  And, what does prostitution law in Minnesota look like?  What about the United States?  Other nations?

Social Harms of Prostitution Are Reduced in the Netherlands

Social Harms of Prostitution Are Reduced in the Netherlands

Malum Prohibitum

Criminal laws can divided into malum in se and malum prohibitum.

Malum In Se is literally “Evil in itself.”  A  malum in se crime is naturally evil, like murder and theft.  Common law crimes were generally mala in se.

An offense malum prohibitum, however, is not naturally an evil, but by legal fiat becomes one as a consequence of its being forbidden; like some gambling, drugs.  These have become unlawful in consequence of being forbidden.

It’s legal in other states and countries.  Prostitution law in other jurisdictions shows us that this is a malum prohibitum offense.

Does a law forbidding an act make it go away, or reduce the social harms that act may cause? 

Drug prohibition laws show that the answer is “no.”  In fact, making practices like alcohol, other drugs, and gambling a crime, greatly increases associated social harms.

We can distinguish between consequences of the act of prostitution and prostitution law.  Many confuse the two.  But they are separate and distinct.

Cause and effect

Which social harms are caused by the act, as opposed to prostitution law?  Let’s list associated social harms:

Coercion.  Sex workers are rarely coerced where it’s legal and regulated. But where unregulated and criminalized, coercion is common.  Human trafficking thrives on criminalization.  The use of drugs, threats, and violence to coerce sex workers is encouraged by criminal prostitution law.

Exploitation of Children.   Where legal and regulated, children and underage people rarely work in the sex industry.  But in Minnesota, as in other places where it is crime, anything goes.  Prostitutes often begin under the age of 18 in Minnesota.

Nuisance.  Is this a “neighborhood livability crime?”  Not much any more.  But to the extent it still is, if legal it can be zoned into a red light district, like pornography in Minneapolis.  The move from the streets to the web has reduced this issue.


Prostitution law aggravates social harms

All of the above are direct products of criminalization.  The consequences below are related to the act, but aggravated by criminal prostitution law.

Public Health.  Sexual activity can spread diseases, such as AIDS.  Where it is legal, regulation enforces frequent medical examinations, education, and makes police and other help available to resist coercion.  Prostitution law that makes it an unregulated crime, increases associated drug addiction.

Morality.  Many view the act as immoral and unethical as a general matter, though compared to others, a minor sin.  Of course, many view sexual activity just short, differently.  What about compassionate use for the physically handicapped, etc.?  

Should “the law of man” allow one to exercise virtue, and leave the domain of saving souls to God’s law?  By binding someone’s hands, do you not prevent them from exercising the free will to be virtuous? 

Which is more immoral, the act of prostitution or criminal prostitution law creating and aggravating all of these social harms?  Consider our related article: Jesus as Criminal Defense Lawyer: The Woman Accused of Adultery.

Minnesota Laws on Prostitution

Prostitution is unregulated in Minnesota because it is a crime.  It is part of the underground economy.  Minnesota’s criminal prostitution law statutes address both the common and the unusual cases.

Most arrests are customers

By far the most common prosecutions in Minnesota are those against would-be customers.  These are generally the result of police sting operations, employing deception.

Police sting deception can go too far, however, creating defenses for the accused.  Though true entrapment defenses are less common, police commonly employ sentencing entrapment by manipulating the situation to up-charge.  A prostitution law attorney can raise these defenses where facts support them.

Traditionally stings began on the streets, often motor vehicles, or in storefronts.

In recent years, they begin online over the internet, for example on Craigslist, Backpage or Rubmaps.  Prosecutors generally charge these online solicitation sting cases as misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor crimes.

Felony cases

Thomas C. Gallagher, Minnesota Prostitution Law Attorney

Thomas C. Gallagher, Minnesota Prostitution Law Attorney

Felony prostitution law crimes in Minnesota are less common.  When prosecutors charge a felony, they allege people under 18 years old, pimps, promoters, and coercion.

The fact that it thrives in an unregulated, underground economy makes investigating these cases difficult for prostitution law enforcement (police) to investigate.

Ironically, changing prostitution law in Minnesota to legalize it would make it easier for law enforcement to target the higher priority problems directly (under 18 years old, pimps and promoters, and coercion).

The author, Thomas C Gallagher is a criminal lawyer who regularly represents people accused of Minnesota prostitution law crimes.